Automobiles are powered by engines that burn fuel to create kinetic energy which is transferred to the wheels, driving them forward and propelling the automobile. They have a variety of systems that manage the flow of power, control the speed and direction of travel, reduce noise and pollution, and provide comfort and safety for passengers. Thousands of individual parts make up modern automobiles, and each system has a specific function. Some of the most important aspects of automobile design are safety, passenger comfort, and fuel economy. Other factors, such as the number of available seat positions and space, are determined by market demands and influenced by government regulations.
The first step in creating an automobile is to build a frame and body that can support the various systems and components of the car. The chassis, analogous to the human body’s skeleton, is welded together from stamped and formed components. It must be strong enough to resist the forces of a crash and protect the passengers. It must also provide storage space and access to the engine and other major components. Finally, it must be flexible enough to adapt to changing road conditions and to permit the selection of different vehicle systems and features.
After the chassis has been constructed, it is time to add the engine. The most common type of engine is the internal combustion gasoline engine, which uses a spark plug to ignite fuel and air mixture in the cylinders to create kinetic energy. The energy from the kinetic energy is transferred to the wheels through a transmission, which is a set of gears that vary the ratio of crankshaft rotation to wheel rotation. Each gear is designed to provide a specific speed range and torque output.
Another essential part of the motor is the carburetor, which is used to mix air and fuel. The carburetor’s job is to supply just the right amount of air and fuel to the engine at all times. Without this vital component, the engine will not run properly and could overheat or fail.
Other essential parts include the electric starter and battery, which provide the initial force to push the engine into motion. The battery then provides electricity to the electrical system of the automobile, including the ignition and starting systems, the instrument panel and lights, the heater and air conditioner, and the computer controls that help the driver operate the vehicle.
While the computer controls can be programmed to do a number of tasks, they must receive input from a variety of sensors that monitor a wide array of conditions. The car’s stability, ride and handling are also determined by the selection of front-wheel versus rear-wheel drive, suspension characteristics, and the choice of a single- or multi-cylinder engine.
Once the basic structure of an automobile is built, it is possible to add a variety of features to suit market demands and consumer preferences. For example, safety and comfort options can be added to the chassis and body, while reducing weight increases fuel efficiency. To increase sales, manufacturers can change the appearance of a model each year.